Editors-in-Chief
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Ass. Prof. Dr. Thierry NAAS

Bacteriology-Hygiene Unit, Hôpital Bicêtre, APHP Paris Saclay, Team ReSIST, INSERM U1184, Université Paris-Saclay, LabEx LERMIT, France.

Topic Editors
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Prof. Dr. Jacques Godfroid

Dept. of Arctic and Marine Biology, Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, The Arctic University of Norway.
Veterinary Microbiology

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Ass. Prof. George Tsiamis

Department of Environmental Engineering, University of Patras, Greece.
Environmental Microbiology

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Prof. Ahmed Sayed Abdelmoneim

Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Taif University, Al-Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia. Founding President of the World Society of Virology
Special issue "Existence Battle: Viruses vs. Creatures"

Editorial Board
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Prof. Dr. med. Klaus-Peter Hunfeld

Institute for Laboratory Medicine, Microbiology and Infection Control, Medical Faculty, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany.

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Prof. Dr. Uwe Gerd Liebert

Institute of Virology, Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany.

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Prof. Dr. Belay Tessema

Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Gondar, Ethiopia.

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Prof.Dr. Paola Roncada

Department of Health Sciences, University Magna Graecia of Catanzaro, Italy.

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Dr. John M. Ngunjiri

Food Animal Health Research Center, the Ohio State University, Ohio, USA.

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Dr. Michael Böhringer

The Institute for Bacterial Infections and Zoonoses, Jena, Germany.

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Prof. Dr. Claudine Mayer

Department of Life Sciences, University of Paris, France.

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Prof. Dr. Janja Trček

Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Maribor, Slovenia.

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Ass. Prof. Yusuf Akhter

Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, India.

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Ass. Prof. Dr. Celin Acharya

Molecular Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, India.

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Dr. Adrian Whatmore

Head of Bacteriology, Animal & Plant Health Agency, Addlestone KT15 3NB, United Kingdom.

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Dr. Zheng Zhu

Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Boston University, Boston, USA.

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Prof. Dr. Patrícia Melchionna Albuquerque

Chemical Engineering Department, School of Technology, Amazonas State University, UEA, Brazil.

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Dr. Philipp Hammer

Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Max Rubner-Institut, Kiel, Germany.

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Prof. Dr. Yongfei Hu

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

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Prof. Dr. Li-Jun Ma

University of Massachusetts Amherst, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA.

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Assoc. Prof. Dr. Veeranoot Nissapatorn

School of Allied Health Sciences, Research Excellence Center for Innovation and Health Products, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand.

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Prof. Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah

Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, University of Development Alternative Lalmatia, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

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Assoc. Prof. Dr. Anna Psaroulaki

Unit of Food, Water and Environmental Microbiology; Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology and Microbial Pathogenesis; School of Medicine; University of Crete; Heraklion; Crete; Greece.

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Prof. Dr. Ghassan M Matar

Chairperson of Experimental Pathology, Immunology and Microbiology Department, American University of Beirut, Lebanon.

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Prof. Dr. hab. Jarosław Dziadek

Director of Institute of Medical Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Head of Laboratory of Mycobacteria, Łódź, Poland.

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Dr. Carolina S. Nodari

Enteric Bacterial Pathogens Unit, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

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Ass. Prof. Hassan Waseem

Dept. of Biotechnology, University of Sialkot, Pakistan.

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Prof. Dr. Gustavo Benaim

Laboratorio de Señalización Celular y Bioquímica de Parásitos. Instituto de Estudios Avanzados (IDEA) Caracas, Venezuela.

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Prof. Dr. Alexander S. Apt

Head Laboratory for Immunogenetics Central Research Institute for Tuberculosis, Moscow, Russia.

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Dr. Marjorie Pizarro-Guajardo

Department of Biology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.

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Prof. Dr. Susan Bueno

Millennium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy, Departamento de Genética Molecular y Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

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Prof. Dr. Albert Bordons

Departament de Bioquímica i Biotecnologia, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Catalonia, Spain.

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Dr. Marios Mataragas

Department of Dairy Research, Institute of Technology of Agricultural Products, Hellenic Agricultural Organization “DEMETER”, Ethnikis Antistaseos 3, 45221 Ioannina, Greece.

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Prof. Dr. Miroslav Oborník

Institute of Parasitology Biology Centre CAS, České Budějovice, Czech Republic.

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Prof. Dr. Khaled A. Shaaban

Center for Pharmaceutical Research and Innovation, and Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536, USA.

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Ass. Prof. Dr. Romy Razakandrainibe

Centre National de Référence -Laboratoire Expert-Cryptosporidioses, Laboratoire de Parasitologie-Mycologie, Rouen University Hospital, France.

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Prof. Dr. Valery M. Dembitsky

Centre for Applied Research, Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Lethbridge College, 3000 College Drive South Lethbridge, Canada.

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Prof. Dr. Teodor-D. Brumeanu

Department of Medicine; Division of Immunology; F. Edward Herbert School of Medicine; Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences; Bethesda, MD USA.

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Prof. Dr. Salam A. Ibrahim

Food Microbiology and Biotechnology Laboratory, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, NC 27401, USA.

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Dr. Afroditi Chatzifragkou

Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, School of Chemistry, Food and Pharmacy, University of Reading, Whiteknights Campus, Reading RG6 6AP, UK.

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Assoc. Prof. Dr. Todd R. Callaway

Department of Animal and Dairy Science, University of Georgia, 425 River Road, Athens, GA 30602, USA.

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Dr. Raquel Sabino

Infectious Diseases Department, National Health Institute Dr. Ricardo Jorge, 1649-016 Lisbon, Portugal.

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Dr. Tino Polen

Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, IBG-1: Biotechnology, Institute of Bio- and Geosciences, 52425 Jülich, Germany.

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Prof. Dr. Elena González-Fandos

Food Technology Department, Universidad de La Rioja, Logroño, La Rioja, Spain.

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Dr. Sofia Casares

US Military Malaria Vaccine Program, Naval Medical Research Center/Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

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Ass. Prof. Dr. Neža Čadež

Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

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Dr. Eric Bapteste

Institut de Systématique, Evolution, Biodiversité (ISYEB), Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, EPHE, Université des Antilles, F-75005 Paris, France.

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Assoc. Prof. Dr. Zehava Eichenbaum

Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30303, USA.