Prevalence of methicillin and clindamycin resistant Staphylococcus species at a tertiary hospital in Tanzania: Implications for antibiotic stewardship and infection management

Authors: Happyness A. Mwailunga, Emmanuel S. Katemi, Elieshiupendo M. Niccodem, Mecky I. Matee

Ger. J. Microbiol. 2023. vol. 3, Iss. 3 pp:1-6


Methicillin and clindamycin resistance (constitutive and inducible) pose a common clinical challenge in treating Staphylococcal infections. This cross-sectional study, conducted at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) in Tanzania from April to June 2023, to assess the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and clindamycin-resistant Staphylococcus (S.) species by using a cefoxitin disk (30 μg) and the D-test method as per CLSI 2022 guidelines. Of the 361 clinical samples, 125 (34.6%) were culture-positive. Among Staphylococcus spp., S. aureus was 6% (12/125), while 33.6% (42/125) were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Among the isolated S. aureus, 75% were resistant to methicillin, while 66.7% of the CoNS were resistant to methicillin. Further, 92% (11/12) of the S. aureus isolates were resistant to erythromycin, and 50% (6/12) were resistant to clindamycin. Among the CoNS, 83% (35/42) were resistant to erythromycin, and 52% (22/42) were resistant to clindamycin. The proportion of inducible macrolides lincosamide streptogramin B resistance (iMLSB), constitutive macrolides lincosamide streptogramin B resistance (cMLSB), and macrolides lincosamide streptgramin B methicillin susceptible (MS) phenotypes among S. aureus isolates was 16.7%, 41.7%, and 33.3%, respectively, and among CoNS was 19%, 35.7%, and 28.6%, respectively. The overall prevalence of iMLSB and cMLSB phenotypes was 18.5% (10/54) and 37% (20/54), respectively. Comparatively, MRSA had more resistance to ciprofloxacin than methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) (88.9% vs. 33.3% p = 0.027), while methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS) had significantly higher resistance to gentamicin (35.7% vs. 7.1% p= 0.005), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (78.6% vs. 50% p=0.007) than methicillin-susceptible coagulase-negative staphylococci (MS-CoNS). The high prevalence of methicillin and inducible clindamycin resistance in this study points out a potential rise in treatment failures, prolonged hospitalization, and limited treatment options. Thus, emphasizes the importance of antibiotic stewardship and laboratory-guided antibiotic decisions. To address the growing challenge of antibiotic resistance in Tanzania, it is advisable to implement stringent public health measures, including monitoring antibiotic usage, conducting educational initiatives, and raising awareness among patients and healthcare professionals.


Antibiotic resistance, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, Inducible clindamycin resistance, D-test, Antibiotic stewardship


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