Enteric protozoal infections in camels: Etiology, epidemiology, and future perspectives

Authors: Eman A. Noaman, Mohamed Nayel, Akram Salama, Mona A. Mahmoud, Adel M. El-Kattan, Ali S. Dawood, Ibrahim S. Abd El-Hamid, Ahmed Elsify, Walid Mousa, Ahmed Elkhtam and Ahmed Zaghawa

Ger. J. Vet. Res 2023. vol. 3, Iss. 1 pp:1-17
Doi: https://doi.org/10.51585/gjvr.2023.1.0046


Camels have great potential as a safety valve for current and future food security for pastoralists, agropastoralists, and urban populations. Enteric protozoal diseases are important causes of economic losses in camels; however, they are poorly concerned globally. The most common members of enteric protozoa are Balantidium, Eimeria, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium. Some of them threaten human health as humans can be infected by consuming food or water contaminated with camel feces, particularly in poor communities with inadequate sanitation and low-quality healthcare facilities. For these reasons, a comprehensive and careful investigation was conducted on some enteric protozoal diseases of camels to present an updated insight into the etiology, epidemiology, and future trends in diagnosing and controlling camel enteric protozoa. Future studies on the camel enteric protozoa should be carried out to develop advanced diagnostic approaches in diverse farm animal species. Moreover, the protozoan zoonotic potential should be considered to secure human health.


Camel, Enteric protozoa, Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment


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